The main objectives for the establishment of Chad Basin National Park include the following:

  • To protect, preserve, conserve and manage the representative samples of the indigenous faunal and floral resources peculiar to the Northeast geographical sub region (Sudano-Sahelian Ecosystems)
  • To promote and encourage the sustainable growth, abundance and perpetuity of these biological materials for zoological and botanical specimens for conservation, preservation and scientific purposes,
  • To encourage general interests and special education among the public in the knowledge of wild animals and plants in order to gain their support for conservation, intergenerational perpetuity, and;
  • To motivate the public to visit the Park for enjoyment as well as appreciate the aesthetic, spiritual and environmental values of nature thereby popularizing the Park’s recreational and touristic potentialities to all levels of socio-economic endeavours.

 

Topography:
As the Park is situated in the conventional Basin of the Lake Chad, the general topography is an undulating drift-covered plain of irregular shaped sand dunes, depressions and sandy flat, which alternates with hummocky terrain. Broadly, the landscape in the North is of low relief with a succession of sand dunes and loamy clay or loamy peneplins. South of 110N latitude, upland of old sedimentary rocks of tertiary age towers over adjacent plains to a height of over 600m. These are the granitic Gwoza hills in the south, to the southeasterly tip of Borno State and the Biu basalt Plateau of well preserved volcanic cones in the south which could be noticed in Lake Tilla Crater.

Climate:
Generally, Borno and Yobe States within which the Park is situated experience dry, arid climatic conditions, with mean annual temperature ranging between10oC at night (December –February) and 28oC-29oC.However, maximum temperature may rise to over 48oC before and during the onset of the rains. The two States have their coldest temperature during the harmattan period.The area is characterized by two seasons; long, dry season (November-May) which is the best period to tour the Park, and short rainy season (June-October) when the Park is completely closed to visitation ,except,perhaps,for research activities. The mean annual rainfall in the Sahel is about 180mm per annum. Annual rainfall increases upto 600 August-700mm during the rainy season which starts in May, reaching a peak in August/September.

Flora:
An open Sudano-scrub-sahelian type dominates the Park’s vegetation. The ecosystem can be described as an association of Acacia and combretaceous scrub with virtually little (or no) trees in the area. Common plant species are mainly Acacia senegal, A. nilotica, A. albida, A. raddiana, A. sayel, A. seiberiana. The sand patches of the area is frequently dominated by Balanites, eagyptiaca, pilliostigma spp, combretum spp, Guarrea senegalensis, Ziziphus mauritania, and Colotropis procera.The Vegetation of Chingurmi- Duguma Sector is governed by a combination of water status, retreating mega-chad adephic changes, post-mega chad human activities and climate variation.

Other areas of the Park particularly the Wetlands is supported by rare ground water riparian woodland characterized by wide range of plant species well adapted to seasonal submergence in water. These include mitragyna inermis, Tamarindus indica, Diospyrros mespilliformis and khaya senegalensis. The Bulatura Oases is characterized by the branching palm Hyphaene thebaica; dum palm, Phoenix lactilifera (dum palm); Acacia spp; Adansonia digitata; Zimminia americana and other drought-tolerant spp, Leptodonia parotechnica, etc.

Fauna:
Under listed are some of the selected faunal resources of the Park, amongst which include:

Common Name Scientific Name
Mammals:
Giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis
Hartebeest Alcelaphus buselaphus
Elephant Loxodonta africana
Red- fronted gazelle Gazelle rurifrons
Spotted hyena Crocuta crocuta
Jackal Canis aureus
Serval cat Felis serval
Ceracal Felis caracas
Reptiles:
Python Python sabae
Monitor lizard Veranus niloticus
Various spp of Snakes  
Fishes:
Cat fish Melapterusrus sp.
Lung fish Protopterus annectens
Tilapia Tilapia tilapia
Avifauna:
Ostriches Struthio camelus
Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus
Guinea fowl Numida meleagris
Egyptian goose Alopochen aegyptiacus
Mallard Anas platyrhynchus
Grey-headed Canary Serinus gularis
Fulvous tree-ducks Dendrocygna bicolor
Bustard Choriotis Kori
Crowned crane Balearica Purvis
Francolines Francolinus sp